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% Percent Concentration and Trace Level Table
A table showing the conversion between the different concentration levels.
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A Guide to pH Measurement – the Theory and Practice of pH Applications from Mettler Toledo
The aim of this book is to give a representative description of pH measurement in the process industries. The pH electrode is the main focus of the text. Correct sensor use is fundamental for a meaningful pH measurement, both practical and theoretical requirements are discussed in depth so that the measuring principle is understood and an accurate measurement made possible.
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A Word (or Two) About Online NIR Water Measurements in Liquid Samples Guided Wave Process Analytical Systems
Water is perhaps the most common measurement made in the near-infrared (NIR). This is due to its strong effect on product properties and chemical reactivity of the starting materials. From an analytical perspective, water is easy to analyze due to its relatively strong signal compared to the hydrocarbon background. Moreover, because water is commonly analyzed with a single wavelength, photometers are the instrument of choice. The purpose of this application note is to show you how we arrive at recommending a system, that is, a photometer with the proper wavelengths and a fiber optic probe with an appropriate sample path length.
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Analysis Options for Ethylene Production - Servomex
Ethylene and its derivatives are in high demand and low natural gas costs in the US are driving expansion and grass roots facilities • There are a variety of options and factors to consider when developing a plan for control and efficient operation – Most effective combustion control scheme - TDL or zirconia ? Combination of both ? – Fuel gas BTU and composition are important – Location of the combustion analyzer is very important – Radiant and convection section measurements are possible – Remote extractive installation is an option to consider – Environmental concerns such as flare combustion efficiency / steam assist require fast speed of response and speciation – Total Cost of Ownership needs to be evaluated for each installation
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Analytical Reliability Analyst Task Force Work Outline
A work outline describing in detail typical plant site Analytical Reliability Analyst responsibilities and normal tasks.
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Application Note— Near IR Spectroscopy in Process Analysis
The purpose of this discussion is to provide the reader with an overview of fiber optic NIR process analysis, including instrumentation, fiber optics, probes and mathematical methods.
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CONDUCTANCE DATA FOR COMMONLY USED CHEMICALS from Emerson
From an analytical point of view, little can be done with a conductance reading, however accurate it may be, unless it can be related to chemical concentration via a table or graph. Much data has been generated in the past 100 years in this area, but a comprehensive gathering of the information in a form useful to industry has been lacking. It is hoped that the following will provide a ready and reasonably accurate reference of conductance values for the majority of electrolytes encountered in industrial situations.
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Calibration Standard Gases Are Key to Reliable Measurements from www.mathesontrigas.com
Calibration Standard Gases Are Key to Reliable Measurements. Acurate, repeatable measurements are possible only when an analytical instrument is calibrated properly.
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Compliance Tips: Fire and Gas Detection and Suppression Systems for LNG Facilities from Det-Tronics
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is 600 times denser than the gas form, making the economics to transport LNG more attractive (and more feasible) than transporting natural gas in pipelines over great distances across oceans. There are several proprietary processes used to make LNG, all of which involve refrigerating the gas and then expanding it to turn into a cryogenic liquid. Inherent in these processes are the risks associated with spills and leaks as well as other process hazards. It is also imperative to detect flame hazards throughout the LNG process. Any effective fire and gas detection and suppression system must be capable of interfacing with and integrating flame, gas and smoke detectors, fire suppression devices and notification appliances.
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Conversion Factors - Conversion Table
A useful conversion table, contains detailed Temperature, Weight, Density, Length, Viscosity, Velocity, Area, Thermal Conductivity, Pressure, Flow, Concentration, Dew Point conversion factors.
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Definition of Common F&G Acronyms and Abbreviations
Definitions of commonly used acronyms and abbreviations in the fire and gas detection field.
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Dräger Introduction to Gas Detection Systems Draeger / Drager
Matter with a temperature above its boiling point is said to be a gas. In respect to the environment of people (normal conditions) any substance having a boiling point below 20 °C at normal pressure is a gas. The most light-weight gas is hydrogen (H2, 14-times lighter than air), the heaviest gas is tungsten hexafluoride (WF6, approx. ten-times heavier than air). Draeger / Drager Introduction to Gas Detection Systems
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DrägerSensor® & Portable Instruments Handbook 2nd Edition Draeger / Drager
This handbook is intended to be a reference for the users of DrägerSensors and portable gas detection. The information has been compiled to the best of Dräger's knowledge.
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EPA Method 1— Sample and Velocity Traverses for Stationary Sources
The purpose of the method is to provide guidance for the selection of sampling ports and traverse points at which sampling for air pollutants will be performed pursuant to regulations set forth in this part. Two procedures are presented: a simplified procedure, and an alternative procedure (see section 11.5). The magnitude of cyclonic flow of effluent gas in a stack or duct is the only parameter quantitatively measured in the simplified procedure.
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Fire and Gas Detection Functional Safety System Certification - Four Possible Pitfalls to be Aware of
Summarizing the Four Possible Functional Safety Pitfalls to be aware of outlined by the Det-Tronics white paper Fire and gas safety systems:Conquering the complexities of functional safety products and systems certifications.
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HACH pH Electrode Cleaning and Maintenance Guide
Throughout the life of your pH electrode, you want to make sure you are getting the best performance and most accurate results possible. However minor items like air bubbles, crystallization, low electrolyte solution, KCl leakage and minor contamination can cause issues. Issues which can result in a lower confidence in the results being provided and additional purchases of replacement electrodes. This guide will provide tips to help you maintain and keep your pH electrodes clean, extending your electrode’s life, while allowing you to maintain a high level of confidence in your readings.
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Handling, storage, and use of compressed gas cylinders from Air Products Safetygram 10
Handling, storage, and use of compressed gas cylinders. Air Products Safetygram 10.
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Hints and Tips to Improve Accuracy In DO and pH Measurement from Mettler Toledo
Accuracy is not solely dependent on the use of high quality sensors. How sensor maintenance and calibration are conducted significantly influence a probe’s ability to measure dependably. In fermentation or cell culturing processes, assurance that sensors will output reliable measurements throughout a batch is particularly critical. This guide covers good operating procedures and includes advice for maintaining in-line pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors to ensure high measurement reliability at all times.
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IEC Hazardous Area Classifications
IEC Hazardous Area Classification Zone Descriptions
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INSPECTION and TEST PROCEDURE GUIDELINES FOR ANALYZER SYSTEMS
An inspection and test procedure to use for an analyzer system Factory Acceptance Test (F A T)
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Infographics: It's all about the Hydrocarbons. Why is oil a valuable resource?
A collection of images depicting a barrel of oil and the everyday products derived from it. Refinery Flow. A list of hydrocarbons and the products produced.
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Insertion Probe Information from Swagelok
The following information is intended to provide guidance to define process interface valves with injection or sampling insertion probes (also referred to as quills).
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Internal Volume of Instrument Tubing
A Table providing approximate Internal Volume of Instrument Tubing per length. In Metric and Imperial units; plastic and metal materials.
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MSA 5th Edition Gas Detection Handbook
The MSA Gas Detection Handbook is designed to introduce users to key terms and concepts in gas detection and to serve as a quick reference manual for information such as specific gas properties, exposure limits and other data. The Handbook contains: • a glossary of essential gas detection terms and abbreviations. • a summary of key principles in combustible and toxic gas monitoring. • reference data—including physical properties and exposure limits—for the most commonly monitored gases, in industrial and various other environments. • a comparison of the most widely-used gas detection technologies. • a table indicating the gas hazards common to specific applications within major industries. • a summary of key gas detection instrumentation approvals information, including hazardous locations classification. • MSA’s exclusive Sensor Placement Guide, detailing important factors to take into consideration when determining optimum gas sensor placement.
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Materials Compatibility Guide
Reference information from Matheson. The following data should serve as a guide in the selection of components for particular gas services. C Gas is compatible at room temperature in pure form with material recommended N Not recommended with this gas S Suitability depends on condition of use – Insufficient data available at this time
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Mettler Toledo CONDverter™ App: Convert Concentration and Conductivities of Common Chemicals
A useful reference App for engineers and instrumentation professionals
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O' Brien Analytical Guide to Electrical Sample Line Heat Tracers
The weakest link in the sample transport system is often the selection and installation of the heat trace medium and temperature control scheme. Use the 2003 O’Brien Corporation • QLT-OBA-TRACER • 25 APR 03 guideline to see cut to length limitations table and selection for the different Electric Tracer Types
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O'Brien Selection Guide for Electropolished Tubing
Electropolished Tube Selection for Analyzer Sample Systems. - Selecting the optimum process tube for use in analyzer sample transport systems requires critical consideration of process conditions. Use of long continuous coils of tubing to semiconductor standards for analytical sample transport.
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Ohm's Law 101
Covers the basics of electricity, Ohm's Law, which states that the amount of current, in a circuit depends on its resistance and the line voltage. The voltage in a circuit is the product of the current flow and the resistance level.
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PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF GAS SAMPLING AND GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS
The amount of hydrocarbon product that is transported between producer, processor, distributor and user is significant. To be able to verify the exact composition of the product is important from an economic and product treatment standpoint. A small percentage savings made by correctly determining composition will quickly recoup the investment made in the purchase of a system designed to obtain an optimum sample. In addition, if the best sampling procedures are followed, the potential for disputes between supplier and customer will be greatly reduced. The importance of properly determining hydrocarbon gas composition benefits all parties involved and will achieve greater significance as this precious commodity becomes less plentiful and more expensive.
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PRESSURE REGULATORS EXPLAINED TESCOM TECHNICAL TRAINING
Have you ever seen a regulator that was encased in a ball of ice on a hot summer day? It is strange to think that a regulator would be buried under a frozen mass of water when the ambient temperature is high and the rest of the piping is not frozen! Chances are that you’re seeing the results of the Joule-Thompson Effect in action. Just what is the Joule-Thompson (or J-T Effect) and why should it be important to you? First described by the noted scientists James Joule and William Thompson in 1852, the J-T Effect, or J-T for short, is simply described as the cooling effect of a high pressure gas as it expands into a lower pressure area. We’ve all come to heavily depend on the practical benefits of the J-T Effect; think air conditioning, Yes, the J-T Effect is what gives us that splendid cool air in our home, car or office on a hot summer day. Refrigerant is compressed to high pressure which then flows through an orifice where it expands into the heat exchanger tubes of the air conditioner. A fan moves fresh air over the heat exchanger tubes which cool the air as it moves into the ducts and flows through your home, car or office. The gas warms as it absorbs the heat from the air and is re-circulated, compressed and expanded over and over again to maintain the cool temperatures we crave on those hot summer days. If you use a spray can of air freshener, deodorant or other product you will feel the can cool in your hands as you spray the product. You are feeling the effect of the gas expanding as you spray it, cooling the can.
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RP 550, Manual on Installation of Refinery Instruments and Control Systems. PART 2 (II) scan
RP 550, Manual on Installation of Refinery Instruments and Control Systems. RP 550 is composed of four parts: Part I -Process Instrumentation and Control Part II -Process Stream Analyzers Part III-Fired Heaters and Inert Gas Generators Part IV-Stream Generators Part I assays the installation of the more commonly used measuring and control instruments, as well as protective devices and related accessories; Part II presents a detailed discussion of process stream analyzers; Part III covers installation requirements for instruments for fired heaters and inert gas generators; and Part IV covers installation requirements for instruments for steam generators. These discussions are supported by detailed information and illustrations to facilitate application of the recommendations. https://www.api.org/Standards/
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Recommended Analyzer Project Checklist
Every successful project can use a guideline to track progress. This is a recommended checklist for a successful analyzer project.
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Role of an Analyzer System Integrator
Role of a Analyzer Systems Integration Package Provide a safe, reliable, and maintainable analytical solution on time and on budget. Protect analytical investment – Analyzer reliability and measurement precision often depends on stable climate conditions – Sample conditioning often needed for proper analyzer operation Provide safe operating environment – Not all analyzers designed for hazardous locations – Process samples could pose risk to technician and equipment. – Utility and Support gases pose risk to technician and equipment Collect and distribute analytical and maintenance data – Modern analyzers generate large amounts of data – Discrete signal and networking wiring needs to be routed to common data junction boxes – Fiber optic patch panels for transmission of large amounts of data
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Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in the Laboratory and Plant
The handling of compressed gases must be considered more hazardous than the handling of liquid and solid materials because of the following properties unique to compressed gases: pressure, low flash points for flammable gases, low boiling points, and no visual and/or odor detection of many hazardous gases. Hazards may arise as a result of equipment failure and leakage from systems that are not pressure tight. Also, improper pressure control may cause over pressurization of a process component, or unsafe reaction rates due to poor flow control. Diffusion of leaking gases may cause rapid contamination of the atmosphere, giving rise to toxicity, anesthetic effects, asphyxiation, and rapid formation of explosive concentrations of flammable gases. The flash point of a flammable gas under pressure is always lower than ambient or room temperature. Leaking gas can therefore rapidly form an explosive mixture with air.
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Scott Safety Gas Detection Reference Guide
Scott Safety is committed to the life safety of workers in potentially dangerous industries such as petrochemical, pharmaceutical, wastewater treatment, and chemical processing. The ability to detect and analyze unseen threats through reliable gas detection products can and will save lives. The safety concerns with exposure to both toxic and combustible gases are the foundation of the need for reliable gas detection. Left undetected and unmonitored, hazardous gases pose grave threats to our health and safety. Exposure to toxic gases can cause a wide range of health effects including simple irritation, loss of consciousness, chronic illnesses, and even death. Combustible gases pose just as great a safety risk because of their potential to ignite and cause massive destruction.
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TECHNIQUES OF NATURAL GAS SAMPLING AND COMPOSITE SAMPLING SYSTEMS
This paper will discuss issues that must be considered to obtain a good representative gas sample through continuous composite sampling.
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THE INTEGRITY AND RELIABILITY OF ON LINE PROCESS ANALYZERS IS CRUCIALLY RELATED TO THE DESIGN OF THE SUPPORTING SAMPLE HANDLING SYSTEM
The most important consideration is to remember that the goal is to condition the sample stream so that it may be continuously analyzed “without” changing the original stream composition. This may not always be the case or possible but the questioning guidelines here serve to educate the user in the intricacies and problems that must be considered and overcome to render an accurate, quality designed sample handling system that offers efficient payback on the total system package. The intention is to choose the correct analyzer(s) and to design an integrous sampling handling system with as much simplicity as possible to render meaningful information that can assist the user in fulfilling their process control, monitoring needs reliably. An important part of designing and building a quality sample handling system matched to the best analytical instrumentation for the customers application is the gathering of the basic information needed by the system design engineer.
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THEORY AND APPLICATION OF CONDUCTIVITY by Emerson Rosemount Analytical
Conductivity is a measure of how well a solution conducts electricity. To carry a current a solution must contain charged particles, or ions. Most conductivity measurements are made in aqueous solutions, and the ions responsible for the conductivity come from electrolytes dissolved in the water. Salts (like sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate), acids (like hydrochloric acid and acetic acid), and bases (like sodium hydroxide and ammonia) are all electrolytes. Although water itself is not an electrolyte, it does have a very small conductivity, implying that at least some ions are present. The ions are hydrogen and hydroxide, and they originate from the dissociation of molecular water.
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TOTAL LAG TIME Single line Application
Total lag time for a sample loop is the total internal volume of the transport tubing and conditioning devices divided by the flow rate in consistent units as follows: T = V÷F where T = time lag (minutes) V = volume of components (cm³) F = sample flow (cm³/min) This equation should be modified to allow for first order lag and a compressibility factor for a gas sample. First order lag is the amount of time required to displace enough volume through a sample-conditioning device to ensure the sample is representative of a process change i.e., mixing time. This is generally a factor of 3 times the volume.
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Ten Interesting Points from the White Paper "The Seven Deadly Sins of Process Analyzer Applications"
The Seven Deadly Sins of Process Analyzer Applications was written by Randy Hauer - AMETEK Process Instruments, USA; Zaheer Juddy - Analytical Instrumentation & Maintenance Systems (AIMS), UAE; Yasuhiro Yoshikane - Umbersoll, Japan; John Sames - Sulphur Experts International, Barbados. The white paper was presented at the Sour Oil & Gas Advanced Technology (SOGAT) 7th International Conference in Abu Dhabi, UAE; March of 2011. The Seven Sins covered in the white paper are as applicable now as they were when the paper was released.
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Ten Things to Consider for a Successful FTIR Analyzer Installation
Chris Hopkins, the principal engineer at ProSCS goes over the ten things to consider for a successful long-term FTIR analyzer installation. ProSCS is a global engineering company with more than 25 years experience in the customized design and fabrication of Analyzer sample conditioning systems for online process analyzers.
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The ABB Guide to Fast pH Measurement
ABB Guide to Fast pH Measurement. Maximizing pH performance. Easy to follow guidelines should help you measure pH accurately and keep your sensors in good working order, thereby reducing costs while maintaining product quality. Although pH sensors and monitoring systems themselves are not complex, their successful use requires their performance to be monitored, as well as a commitment to proper and regular maintenance.
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Three Quick Tips To Increase your pH sensor selection Skills
The lifetime of a pH sensor has a significant impact on the total costs of ownership and performance of the entire pH measuring loop. Improving four key areas will lower costs and optimize process control and overall plant efficiency. These four key areas are: Maintenance & Storage, Calibration, Engineering Skill-set Sensor Selection.
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Top 10 keys for a good mass spec installation
Top 10 keys for a good mass spec installation
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WHAT IS pH AND HOW IS IT MEASURED? A Technical Handbook for Industry from HACH
Almost all processes containing water have a need for pH measurement. Most living things depend on a proper pH level to sustain life. All human beings and animals rely on internal mechanisms to maintain the pH level of their blood. The blood flowing through our veins must have a pH between 7.35 and 7.45. Exceeding this range by as little as one‐tenth of a pH unit could prove fatal. Commodities such as wheat and corn, along with other plants and food products, will grow best if the soil they are planted in is maintained at an optimal pH. To attain high crop yields, farmers must condition their fields to the correct pH value. Different crops need different pH levels. In this case, one size does not fit all.
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What is An Analyzer Specialist ?
What is an Analyzer Specialist? A description of the knowledge base and responsibilities of an Analyzer Specialist.
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What makes up a fire protection system
Based on Det-tronics white paper, Meeting NFPA standards for flame, smoke and gas detection A fire protection system is comprised of several subsystems that can include, but are not limited to: flame, smoke and gas detection; notification and/or suppression activation; and a controller that receives the inputs from the detection devices, makes decisions and initiates appropriate action or actions.
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White paper 'The Seven Deadly Sins of Process Analyzer Applications re-posted with permission from Randy Hauer
The objective of this paper is to give an audience of primarily process design engineers a detailed view of the problem areas relating to a typical slate of process analyzers found in a large grass roots project.
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Why Functional Safety Product Certifiers Must Meet Highest Level of Accreditation
You need your fire and gas system to function at the highest safety levels. What can you do to make sure it is? A third party evaluation of a manufactured product is preferred over self-certification. But which third-party should you select? What matters in certification? How can you have confidence you have selected fully qualified companies to conduct proper and complete product certification? Helping you answer these questions is this paper’s goal. Common misconceptions include: Misconception 1: product self-certification follows the same rigor as third-party approval Misconception 2: all product certifiers are equally qualified Misconception 3: standards on documentation mean the product has a certain certification Misconception 4: you achieve SIL 3 by using redundant SIL 2 products with SIL 2 process
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Yokogawa O2 Learning Handbook
This handbook has been designed as an ongoing tool, which will be updated and amended on a regular basis to help keep the users abreast of new market developments based on process/application improvement as well as new product developments. Oxygen concentration measurements are used in a variety of applications including, energy conservation, pollution reduction and process quality control and accomplished using several different measurement principals. Even Governmental regulations to control CO2 and NOx emissions, affect even small municipal, private and commercial utility boilers and furnaces as they must be controlled or at least tested on a regular basis. However, Zirconia-based Oxygen Analyzers are most commonly used for combustion control, burner optimization and to increase the efficiency of boilers and industrial heaters to achieve fuel conservation. Major end-users are found in the following industrial fields: • Electrical Power Generation • Chemical and Petrochemical • Iron and Steel Manufacturing • Petroleum Refinery • Pulp & Paper • Textiles
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Yokogawa pH and ORP Learning Handbook
The purpose of the Yokogawa pH and ORP learning handbook is to provide a comprehensive understanding of pH/ORP measurement and how to achieve reliable results. Basic information on the principles of measuring pH/ORP, the construction of the sensing elements and their basic use in process applications are provided.
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